Preliminary list of conference panels
Please note that some panels listed here are closed, meaning that they already have papers associated with them. These have 5-6 paper abstracts listed. If you wish to try to join these panels, please write to us beforehand at NMR2022@hum.ku.dk.
- Access at stake. Exploring gatekeeping and its practices across migration and border studies
- Becoming a “good citizen”? Civic education policies and practices for newly arrived migrants in the Nordic Countries
- Camps as Carceral Junctions
- EVICTABILITY: Understanding the nexus of migration and urban displacements
- Histories of Refugeedom in the Nordic Countries
- Interactive Roundtable: Exploring researcher positionalities in fieldwork: mobility and intersectionality
- Migration Policies and Governance in Crisis Situations
- Migration RE:PRESENTED
- Mobile and Migrant childhoods
- Postmigration – a new perspective to re:frame migration studies?
- Rebuilding futures: migrant mobilities, urban rescaling and urban identities
- Re:Conceptualization: Migration, diversity-another gaze, the third space
- Re:constructing diasporic communities Theme: RE:BUILD. Infrastructures and materiality
- RE:LATE. Families, intimacies, relationships "Emotions and affect in deportation: The transformative power of social relationships"
- RE:LATE. Families, intimacies, relationships: Understanding family violence in the context of migration and settlement
- Re-location and/or transit: Migrant workers on the threshold of the Danish labor market
- RE:Localise labour market inclusion
- RE:MOTE – On migration and remoteness
- RE:PAIR Looking at health care among migrants in a Norwegian context”
- RE:SEARCH & RE:POSITION Avoiding falling down the rabbit hole of ethnicity: de-migranticization, the post-migrant condition and what else?
- RE:SEARCH & RE:STRICT Migration Research and The Politics of Deterrence
- Re-thinking Temporary Protection in the Context of the Return Turn in Asylum in Europe: ‘Concept, practice, principle’
- RE:VIVE. Religion and spirituality
- RE:WORK – Labour and economy The Nexus of Transnational Labour Migration and Digital Platforms
- Teaching migration studies (in highly politicized environments)
- Urban encounters with difference
Gatekeeping appears as a dynamic and ubiquitous metaphor and concept across disciplines and fields. Starting its trajectory in psychology (Lewin1943), gatekeeping has travelled across a great variety of disciplines (media studies, interactional sociolinguistics, history, political science, etc.) before reaching migration and border studies in the 2000s. The concept conveys an idea of control operated at an intersection, whether related to filtering of information or state control of circulation of citizens, funds, and resources across national borders. Border studies scholars deployed the concept of “gatekeeper states” to examine the role of various small states and islands as gatekeepers of EU borders (Hills2004; Kim2018, Mainwaring2019; Luša2021). Triandafylliodou (2014) defines gate-keeping as specific strategies and policies that aim at restricting practical legal access to a nation and its institutions. Thus, gatekeeping has been analyzed as activities performed by political parties, policy-makers (Breunig & Luedtke2008) as well as social workers and municipal authorities (Tervonen & Enache2017). Adopting the micro level and actor-oriented perspective, migration scholars have analyzed various ‘street-level bureaucrats’ (Lipsky1969) as gate-keepers, including border bureaucrats, immigration and visa officers (Wong2017; Iacovetta2006; Pellander2015). This focus is important as those actors have the duty and discretionary power to monitor, select, and grant access to territory, visa, national citizenship, rights, social services or legal status (Satzewich2014).
This panel looks at gatekeepers in charge of migration and integration policy implementation whose everyday practices have significant impact for both individual migrants and host communities. It brings together original contributions based on field studies bringing to light what gatekeeping may help us to understand from different social and political practices and settings. We are interested in papers that focus especially on everyday ‘gatekeeping practices’ (Hönke2018) performed by (state and non-state) actors engaged in policy implementation or public service provision.
2. Becoming a “good citizen”? Civic education policies and practices for newly arrived migrants in the Nordic Countries
Civic integration of migrants has become a key policy objective giving rise to significant public discussion across Europe. This integration policy trend has come to be described as ‘civic turn’ in the literature. Across different countries, migrants are obliged to attend an integration programme consisting of a language course and a course in societal knowledge in order to learn about the norms and values of the host societies. At its heart, civic education is designed to produce “good citizens”. The Nordic countries are no exception and civic orientation educational programmes have been established with a view to ensuring that newly adult arrived migrants experience a fast transition to education, work and integration into society.
In this panel we are interested in exploring the occurrence, establishment, content and implementation of different kinds of civic orientation educational programmes for adult migrants. Thus, we encourage submission of papers looking into the broad spectrum of social integration and education policies and programmes in order to deepen and nuance the debate on the “civic turn” and its meaning in the Nordic countries.
Within the general theme of the conference on Re: Migration, the panel welcomes empirical as well as theoretical and methodological contributions in relation to the “civic turn”. These could include.
- Empirical studies on civic orientation programmes/courses for adult migrants
- Theoretical reflections on civic integration policies and requirements
- Methodological reflections on research in the field of the “civic turn”
The so-called ‘refugee crisis’ in Europe has demonstrated the widespread use of encampment as a response to migration. It also demonstrated the ways in which individuals navigate this terrain of encampment. These holding sites, temporary shelters, registration, accommodation and deportation centres are isolated and isolating spaces, distinct and disconnected from ordinary space. Simultaneously though camps are also connected to spaces beyond them through flows of bodies, through social media and through the knowledge and practices of those who create and manage them. The key point is that camps are at once sites of confinement and of junctions that connect and enable mobility.
In order to understand this paradox of connectedness and incarceration, we have put forward the concept of carceral junctions (Whyte & Turner, forthcoming). Conceptualizing camps as carceral junctions means examining the double sense of “moving camps”: On the one hand, camps shape, detain, and enable specific forms of movement for migrants, as they move between camps and cultivate networks in hopes of viable futures. On the other hand, camps themselves are also mobile in the sense that models of encampment travel and shift within and between states. By proposing the concept of carceral junctions we intend to draw on but also critique conceptualizations and theories that either reify the confining nature of camps as places of exception or overly celebrate the agency of migrant mobility. The term is coined to grasp the mobilities of knowledge, power and bodies that characterize camps, as well as their interfaces and connectedness in a context where states adopt increasingly restrictive refugee policies.
In this panel we invite contributions to further reflect on this comprehensive nature of camps and challenge common sense dichotomies of confinement/freedom, mobility/immobility and structure/agency in a bid to understand the policies of encampment and refugee mobility as more than opposing processes.
Recently, scholars have brought attention to urban forms of displacement that affect differently politicized subjects beyond the general division of “migrants” and “citizens” (Darling, 2016; De Genova et al., 2021). Migrants, and some who are formally citizens, are increasingly affected by various forms of internal and urban displacements, such as evictions and homelessness (cf. Soederberg, 2018). This panel addresses practices of displacement at different scales, interpreted through the concept of “evictability” (van Baar, 2016). While eviction refers to the organised removal of people through forfeiture, confiscation or destruction of property, “evictability” (analogous to “deportability”) refers to the state of constantly being threatened by such practices. Defined as “the possibility of being removed from a sheltering space” (van Baar, 2016, 214), “evictability” has been introduced to highlight the role of urban displacements in the governance of “unwanted” migrants and citizens alike - and in an effort to de-nationalise the concepts and methods of migration and border studies. Here, we want to elaborate on the concept of evictability by testing it empirically at the urban scale while also considering multifarious experiences in different geographical contexts. We welcome contributions on the following topics and beyond:
- The interplay between migration policies and housing policies in cities, including migrant reception and accommodation policy, and the role of evictions and housing insecurity in this context.
- Evictions of makeshift migrant camps and seasonal workers accommodation.
- The role of non-state actors, including both corporate and grassroots actors, in effecting and challenging evictability (e.g. how far-right vigilante groups as well as pro-migrant activists, relate to and act with regards to makeshift shelters and squats).
- Embodied evictabilities - how living under the threat of eviction impacts the everyday lives of people.
- Theoretical and methodological elaboration on evictability and its relation to similar concepts such as expulsion, displacement, and un-homing.
Present-day academic and public discussions on forced migrations have a tendency to overlook the past. Meanwhile, conventional historical narratives of the Nordic societies have near-systematically omitted refugees, deportations, and other forms of forced migration. This open workshop aims to counter these tendencies by examining histories of forced migrations in the Nordic countries, and their effects on the formation and imagining of the Nordic societies from 19th century to the present. While a majority of population displacements have taken place in the context of war, all Nordic states have also engaged in deportations of ‘undesirable’ individuals and groups. Hence, the workshop focuses not only on wartime forced migrations but also on other, more ‘mundane’ involuntary movements. It explores gaps and silences in histories of forced migration and how memory politics influence what is memorized (or forgotten) over time in regard to these movements. We invite papers examining, in broad terms, the Nordic histories of refugeedom, by which we refer to a matrix of administrative practices, legal norms, social relations and refugees’ experiences. The panel is organized as a part of a NOS-HS funded Nordic workshop series ‘Histories of Refugeedom in the Nordic Countries’ (2020-2022) that aims to take the first steps towards understanding how histories of forced migrations have shaped the Nordic region.
6. Interactive Roundtable: Exploring researcher positionalities in fieldwork: mobility and intersectionality
Our positionalities as migration researchers matter in fieldwork. For instance, we might have experiences of migration, or be part of “host society” who have never been migrants. These experiences intersect with other markers of difference, enabling or constraining our access to our areas of study and directing our attention to specific questions and perspectives. Consequently, as migration researchers, we are ourselves implicated in the phenomena we are studying and knowledge we are producing. In this roundtable, we explore how researcher positionalities matter in migration research, especially in the Nordic context, focusing on how (im)mobility experiences intersect with positionalities related to the intersections of class/gender/race/ethnicity/religion/sexuality etc. Format: The first session will introduce the topic and offer initial reflections from the panelists. These will be followed by questions and comments from the audience. In the second session the roundtable will take on a more interactive form, inviting all the participants to discuss and reflect on their positionalities as researchers in a more intimate exchange-conducive format. Thus continuing the conversation, we will focus on dilemmas and productive tensions tied to researcher positionality, and the potentials and constraints these offer for future research and collaborations.
Questions that we will be exploring will include:
- How do our own (im)mobility (hi)stories both drive and constrain our research foci? And why and how does it matter, including in relation to other aspects of our positionalities?
- How do we navigate insider and outsider positions, multiple research contexts and scales, different power dynamics and inequalities?
- What implications do these reflections have for designing and undertaking future research?
The panel aims to present the vulnerabilities of migrants in the midst of a disaster or pandemic and the various mechanisms they employed to cope with its impacts. How do host countries in Asia respond to the crisis and what are the policy implications of this on the integration, migratory status, and access to various types of welfare support by migrants and returnees? Findings from the selected research studies illustrate the various outcomes and challenges for migrants as businesses are shuttered during the crisis and access to basic services and employment remain limited. Current policy frameworks to address crisis situations resulting from a disaster or pandemic are evaluated to identify the extent to which the responses consider the needs and vulnerabilities of migrants.
Dr. Atinder Pal Kaur, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, India; firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Bhupesh Gopal Chintamani, Vaikunth Mehta National Institute of Co-Operative Management (VAMNICOM), Pune, India
The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented shocks and dynamic change to the migrants and their households. Shortage of financial funds and an increase in the duality of mobility and work resources are some of the impacts which caused immense job losses globally. Thus, this research is carried out to examine the effects of the pandemic on migrant households and migrant returnees along with their mitigation strategies. In addition, the role of governance has been evaluated to tackle the current situation. An ethnographic approach was utilized on a sample of 200 migrant families in rural Punjab. The area was selected as it represents the strongest diaspora and labour migration from Indian at the international level. Furthermore, the mixed-method approach is utilized for further analysis showing a sudden spike of return migration and debts among migrant households. The migrant returnees were landless and marginal farmers who engaged mainly in the daily labour activities. However, due to the unavailability of jobs, the migrants engaged in domestic work. Moreover, left-behind families generally experienced a rise in debts to meet their basic needs and support the migrant returnees in the country. Lastly, the analysis revealed that government intervention through financial assistance and protection of migrant returnees is lacking.
Dr. Maria M. Ikeda, Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan, email@example.com
This study asks the question, "How do migrant returnees survive in vulnerable places during the COVID-19 pandemic?” I interviewed Filipino migrant returnees who chose to resettle in Leyte which experienced super-typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) in 2013.
This paper discusses the importance of place-based social capital on a migrant or returnee’s well-being. Using a conceptual framework of subjective well-being seen through the lens of the community, a case study approach was used to examine the importance of migrant returnees’ social capital and sense of place in community rebuilding during a pandemic. The initiatives by returnees showcasing their skills in resource mobilization, community rebuilding and resilience are also analyzed. Moreover, this research focuses on pro-active returnees who utilized their resources in supporting their communities in crisis through creative initiatives in education, food security, health and environment. The main findings imply that sense of place and social capital are important determinants of migrant returnees’ subjective well-being as well as capacity building in their reintegration efforts within home communities. The research also examined how returnees engage in mutual aid initiatives in rebuilding their vulnerable communities from a massive local natural disaster while simultaneously engaged in a global pandemic that restricted access to external aid. Collaborating with community stakeholders such as local leaders, entrepreneurs and public authorities has proven necessary for the pro-active returnees to sustain build-back-better initiatives in a post-crisis setting.
Dr. Viktoriya Kim, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Aleksandra Babovic, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University, Japan
This paper explores Japan’s policy response and initiatives as a migrant receiving country during the COVID-19 crisis and discusses possible long-term outcomes of such policies on migrants and their integration into local society. The concepts of anticipatory and polycentric governance were used as analytical frameworks relevant for complex governance problems—migration management. Qualitative textual analysis of Japanese central and local governments’ policy papers and initiatives that refer to migrant communities during the COVID-19 pandemic were utilized to evaluate the quality of the problem formulation, solutions proposed, and the effectiveness in their implementation. Findings from this research reveal a discrepancy between the Japanese government’s approach to migrant communities and their real needs due to the highly centralized decision-making process. This research further discussed migrant communities as powerful actors and governance locus for their capability of material and human mobilization within informal networks in addressing their immediate needs to remedy the policy gaps mentioned. Thus, there is a potential to connect disparate centers of governance by including central, local governments, community leaders, and researchers. The ramifications of the proposed approach lie in fostering policies based on improved problem identification and formulation, inclusive and practical solutions, and empowerment of migrant communities as the first step toward effective crisis mitigation which could constitute a solid base for more effective policy responses in the future. Such improvements are crucial in the context of the already existent early warning systems that point at detrimental effects of Japan’s demographic deficit and its urge to improve retention rates of migrants.
Prof. Ma. Reinaruth D. Carlos, Graduate School and Faculty of International Studies, Ryukoku University, Kyoto, Japan, email@example.com
Since the beginning of the fourth wave of migration to Japan from the 1980s, the types of occupation taken by Filipino migrants have diversified by skills (broad categories of high, medium and low) and industry fields (mainly agriculture, manufacturing and services). Since around the same time, Japan’s migration policies and domestic labor market structure have become more complicated and skills-specific. The number of Filipino English teachers and care workers have been on the rise from around 2010 in response to educational reforms and demographic transformation respectively. In this study, we examine how the intersection between the labor market structure and labor migration regimes based on occupation within the host country not only generates differentiated forms and extent of vulnerability (even prior to the pandemic) and impacts but also shapes their responses and determines their speed of return to pre-pandemic economic level. Based on the results of a survey in Chugoku region in Western Japan (n=201), it was found that workers in the teaching and care work sectors experienced less damaging negative impacts. Moreover, based on interviews with Filipino workers (n=25), these impacts were less temporary. Such imbalances in the impacts and recovery have also paved the way for Filipino workers to desire to switch to these occupations, which partly alleviates the labor shortage in these two occupations.
Over the last few decades, more and more Filipinos are seeking for better opportunities in less-popular destinations such as Thailand; often outside the institutionalized migration framework established by the Philippine government. This type of migration has evolved, grown and sustained for several decades bypassing the Philippine government’s migration institutions and policies that generally govern labour migration, giving rise to irregular or unauthorized migration in Thailand. However, this has grave consequences for irregular migrants which are exacerbated during the Covid-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the pandemic has also affected regular migrants in the country, exposing the vulnerabilities of several Filipinos working as teachers. Narratives were used as a common frame of reference to analyze the inequalities in migration and the vulnerabilities of the migrants amid the pandemic. Findings from in-depth interviews reveal that several Filipino teachers traversed between regularity and irregularity, and within layers of ambiguous statuses. COVID 19 has simultaneously revived or reinforced pre-existing inequalities like disparities in pay and being treated as “2nd class category of teachers”. The lack of protection mechanisms also perpetuates the exploitation and injustice against teachers and making them appear as normal or natural. Extended closures of the borders around Thailand due to the pandemic has left migrants unable to process the visa necessary to legalize their employment placing them in “illegal” statuses. The pandemic, therefore, has disrupted various aspects of the lives of migrants in the study, a vital lifeline for them.
Dr. Radha Adhikari, University of the West of Scotland, UK, firstname.lastname@example.org
Hundreds of thousands of Nepali migrant workers are working in the Gulf States. The Covid-19 pandemic-related lockdown in early 2020 has trapped migrant workers in the Gulf States; many were unemployed and in unsafe accommodations, compromising their personal safety and security. This paper is based on the analysis of news media reports on the impact of the Covid-19 lockdown on Nepali migrant workers. Around 187 national and international online publications that highlighted Nepali migrant workers in the Gulf States were retrieved and analyzed from March 2020 until the end of June 2020. The findings revealed that the migrant workers were not equipped with satisfactory social distancing facilities and many continued to live in overcrowded accommodations putting them at higher risk of Covid-19 transmission. Moreover, many lost their jobs and other forms of security. On the other hand, several undocumented migrant workers reported themselves to authorities for repatriation. Extreme pressure from the migrant workers groups forced the Nepalese diplomatic mission to repatriate migrant workers back home. However, there was very little effort from both the host country and employers to assist them. The lack of coordination between the Nepalese government and host countries in the Gulf states added to the problems; thus, highlighting a great need for a strengthened collaboration between governments to ensure the safety and security of migrant workers as well as an effective management during a crisis such as the Covid-19 pandemic.
Mary Rose Sarausad, email@example.com
This open panel focuses on questions of representation of, in and from migratory contexts. In various transnational and diasporic groups the questions of belonging, identity, memory and representations are highly politicized.
To grasp the multiple forms of ‘imagined presence’ (Ellliott/Urry 2010), we have to be aware that there is not a single metanarrative, but heterogenous and divers construct of various pasts.
Herein politics of representation, thus the power and ability to exercise control over images and interpretations will be discussed (Barnard/Spencer 2003). Imaginaries dealing with migration are social imaginaries, embedded in polysemic cultural formations (Adey et al. 2014).
The panel will takle questions of representations of marginalised groups, the writing of alternative histories and concerns about 'permissions to narrate‘. Representational concerns encompass discussions about the possibility of political participations, as well as shifting identities and allegiances (Boccagni et al. 2016). Of specific concerns herein are the multidirectionality of memories and representations, which are connected to multiple temporalities.
This panel focuses specifically on visual forms of representation, wether and how photographs/films/documentaries and artworks are forms of (mediated) transcultural memories (Brunow 2015) and can have a life on its own. Representation of the self in the present and one's near past is closely connected with memory regimes and memory work. Herein images can be sources of friction and discomfort. Visual/ and arts-based representations can enable participatory work, creating spaces for remembrance and possibilities for negotiating belonging and identity.
Dr. Maria Six-Hohenbalken, Maria.Six-Hohenbalken@oeaw.ac.at
Children and young people are one of the most central actors and participants in the mobility and migration flows. Arriving to a new country in young age is a crucial phase in children’s life course, marked by complexity of experiences trigged by migration, with a potential to transform children’s life even when they become adults. The diversity of children’s migration experiences, within different national and international regulations, have increasingly been acknowledged in contemporary academic debates. However, their inner subjectivities and experiences of arriving, settling and (re)constructing their transnational identities and sense of belonging, not the least in these uncertain times influenced by the ongoing pandemic, require constant re: conceptualisations.
Within this panel we are interested to grasp children´s and youth’s own voices and experiences about being mobile and living in different countries during their childhood and transition to adulthood. We encourage submission of papers looking into the role of age, gender, class, and legal status in (re)building of intergenerational relationships and national identities over time, in acquiring new languages and building relationships and belonging in mobility. Another important topic is how children talk about their everyday lives and their futures in relation to place, education, religion, work, and own family building.
Within the general theme of the conference on Re: Migration, the panel on Mobile and migrant childhoods welcomes empirical studies, theoretical and epistemological reflections and methodological contributions. These could include (but are not limited to) the following:
- Empirical studies on children´s own experiences of mobility that make visible that mobility and migration are shaped and conditioned by both inner subjectivities and structural conditions.
- Theoretical and epistemological reflections on children migration research from different fields of studies
- Creative methodologies in research with migrant children, especially strengthening the life-course perspective and children´s own participation in the research process
- Impact of the pandemic on young people who are migrants
In recent years, the concept of ‘postmigration’ has begun to gain traction across European academia, often challenging the existing discourse on migration and its consequences. Already in 2013, sociologist and professor in educational studies, Erol Yildiz, defined postmigration as a ‘radical questioning of the conventional view on migration’. The new concept does not, he argues already back then, refer to ‘a state of “afterwards”’ in a temporal sense, it is rather about ‘to retell the history of migration and to rethink the whole field beyond the hegemonic discourse’. In the years to follow, the concept has started to circulate in different academic areas and disciplines, such as cultural studies, ethnology, sociology, educational studies, refugee-studies. Scholars such as Naika Foroutan, Regina Römhild, Riem Spielhaus, Juliane Karakayali and others started to explore the new concept as a means of moving beyond the widespread binary way of thinking about migration and migrants (e.g. juxtaposing us and them, self and other, uprootedness and rootedness, home culture and foreign culture, leaving and arriving etc.). Instead, they focused on the complex, ongoing struggles and processes of negotiation taking place in societies which have been, and still are being, shaped by past and ongoing movements of people. In our panel we want to discuss the possibilities and restrains of this developing concept as new approach in critical migration research. Can this particular concept help us to overcome some of the most persistent pitfalls of traditional migration studies, and can the concept help us to building bridges between different academic fields, such as educational studies and cultural studies? Do we need to understand the Nordic countries as ‘postmigrant societies’, and what do we gain by using this specific terminology? Can the concept help us to re:frame migration studies?
Moritz Schramm, Institute for the Study of Culture, University of Southern Denmark
Anna Meera Gaonkar, Department of Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen
The concepts of ‘postmigration’ and ‘postmigrant society’ currently engage academics across Europe. While some researchers have welcomed the concepts as a much-needed theoretical intervention, other researchers express confusion about the novelty of postmigration studies in comparison to (critical) migration studies, cultural studies and postcolonial studies. Some have even complained that the postmigrant analytic bypasses issues of racism in Europe (El-Tayeb; Heidenreich). This paper critically but curiously weighs in on the discussion within the arts and culture. I give particular attention to the affective economy of contemporary Danish society as a postmigrant society in which social, cultural, and political forces treat migration as both threat and enhancement, risk and potential (Ahmed; Espahangizi). What nuances of these contradictory forces and the panics they create in public discourse may the postmigrant analytic tease out?
Gro Hellesdatter Jacobsen, Department for the Study of Culture, SDU
How can a postmigration perspective contribute to the understanding and development of academic education in the field of migration? In 2011, a BA programme in Intercultural Education [Interkulturel pædagogik] was established at University of Southern Denmark. The BA programme is interdisciplinary, including a choice of either Arabic or Danish as a second language as the other main subject. Today, the Arabic track has been discontinued so that all students study Intercultural education combined with Danish as a second language. The presentation draws on document analysis of the official curriculum [studieordning], the original application from establishing the study programme in 2011, as well as the anthology “Interkulturel pædagogik – Kulturmøder i teori og praksis” [Intercultural education – Cultural encounters in theory and practice] (2015) edited and authored by lecturers and researchers affiliated with the study programme and announcing a “presentation of a research and education field”.
Furthermore, I will include reflections on my own positioning as researcher in the field and lecturer in the BA programme since 2017. Based on the case study of this BA programme, I will discuss migrantology (Regina Römhild) pitfalls and postmigration possibilities of academic education in the migration field.
Maja Povrzanović Frykman, GPS & MIM, Malmö University
The emerging cross-European debate and research on the ‘postmigrant’ condition acknowledges antagonistic positions towards migration and struggles about participation and representation, but also highlights new alliances that are not reduced to origin or heritage. This paper will argue for the importance of a thorough understanding the dynamics of such alliances and discuss some methodological aspects of the ways in which they can be explored. The paper is based on a current project (Academia and cultural production as ‘postmigrant’ fields in Sweden) on processes of establishment of migrants and their descendants in positions of professional influence and public visibility, that does not comply to ‘research on migrants’ but shifts attention to the relationships emerging in a society shaped by migration. The project focuses on academia and cultural production as the two fields in Sweden in which migrants have the highest representation in leading positions in public institutions. Interviews with established professionals who hold positions of high status involve as equally important participants who self-identify as ‘natives’, ‘migrants’ and ‘migrant descendants’. They are used to explore the ways professional alliances are forged across origins, with a particular interest in the role of friendship.
Heléne Hedberg & Josepha Wessels, MIM, Malmö University
Together with a growing population of a migrant background from Arab descent, three seminal Arabic musical instruments have entered Swedish society; the Oud, the Qanoun and the Darbukkah. These instruments were introduced in different ways, by professional Arabic musicians to Swedish audiences, at music schools and educational institutions, but also in specific musical instrument shops. This paper reflects on the meaning of these instruments for the post-migrant condition, providing a vehicle to fuse Swedish and Arabic musical cultures and heritage. It describes, how these instruments, entrenched in Arabic culture, provide Arabic-speaking Swedes with a sense of home, while at the same time changing the musical landscape in Sweden. The study is based on participant observation, semi-structured interviews with Arabic musicians who play these instruments professionally within the Swedish cultural production sector, as well as auto-ethnography following the pedagogical application of these instruments, how they are introduced to, and taken up by, people without Arabic background. Understanding postmigration as a transient concept, marked by continuous transformation, the three instruments and music-making are used analytically as a lens to disentangle how negotiations of identity, belonging, culture and heritage take place within the context of increasing diversity in society (Gebauer et al., 2019).
Marta Padovan-Özdemir, Roskilde University & Philip Dodds, Lund University.
The postmigration perspective calls for a thorough recalibration of how we study migration and the effects of migration, by which we turn our researcher gaze from the migrant Other to the socio-political and socio-symbolic negotiations unfolding in a society already complicit in the dynamics of migration (Petersen & Schramm 2016). This paper takes the postmigration argument of complicity a step further and acknowledges the migration researcher as an implicated subject in the phenomenon under study (Narvselius 2021). Instead of compensating for the researcher complicity, this paper proposes to utilize researcher complicity as way of fostering a collaborative and participatory postmigratory methodology (Myong 2018; cf. Padovan-Özdemir 2020). Accordingly, the paper conceptualizes the methodological notion of postmigratory autoethnography as a layered account (Ellis, Adams & Bochner 2011:278-9) and displays the authors’ four attempts of doing and writing postmigratory autoethnographies based on two aesthetic workshop series with artist facilitators and migrant participants in Denmark and Sweden, respectively. Ultimately, the paper discusses the implications and experiences of involving oneself as a migrant researcher in an aesthetic exploration of migrant home-making in two welfare state contexts of divergent and heated integration politics – and converses the research contribution of complicity.
Kristina Grünenberg, University of Copenhagen& Philip Dodds, Lund University
As part of the research project Making it Home: An Aesthetic Methodological Contribution to the Study of Migrant Home-Making and Politics of Integration, in this paper we present research on migrant film and visual art in Sweden and Denmark, 2010–2020. Specifically, we discuss a selection of key cultural expressions and sensory, aesthetic processes in relation to the “postmigration” framing proposed by Naika Foroutan, Moritz Schramm, Erol Yıldız and others. We explore whether (and how) artistic approaches to questions of home and migrant home-making emerge in new ways, such that they may in turn contribute to ‘postmigration thinking’ as well as to a re-framing of migration studies and public discourses. By asking how artistically mediated aesthetic, visual and sensory approaches move beyond the us-versus-them and home-versus-away binaries of conventional migration discourse, and how a post-migration perspective on migrant home-making contributes to perspectives on home as a processual achievement, and an outcome of complex and ongoing negotiations in and between societies that are fundamentally shaped by processes of migration, we further intend to contribute to Ring Petersen’s (2017) analysis of the politics of aesthetics – or, rather, the relationships between aesthetic and political processes responding to migration in Sweden and Denmark.
Re:Conceptualization: Migration, diversity-another gaze, the third space
The concept of moorings is well-established within studies of migration and global mobilities. Moorings can be airports, but they can also be neighborhoods where migrants settle and live. Moorings are physical, material (Hannam, Sheller & Urry, 2006). Such materiality is not only a necessity for mobility and the establishment of transnational social fields: It is also an aspect that city administrators are aware of in attempts to restructure and rescale cities (e.g. Schiller & Caglar 2009). Central questions that we seek to address in this workshop is how materiality, not least in the shape of urban neighborhoods and social housing areas, has become a keystone in both municipal and national integration policies. Integration may include a direct reconfiguration of large urban areas (tearing down building blocks, redesigning physical space), of legally narrowing down who has the right to live in the area, and labeling some areas as ghettos or parallel societies. Thus, our workshop will also delve into questions of (urban) identities and identifications. What are, for example, the implications of being identified as someone living in a ghetto? In this workshop we want to discuss the implications of these spatial reconfigurations and legislation. One argument frequently applied is that these types of action will further the social integration of immigrants and secure social cohesion. Is that the case?
Garbi Schmidt, Professor of Cultural Encounters, Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
Lasse Kofoed, Associate Professor & Kirsten Simonsen, Professor, Department of People and Technology, Roskilde University, Denmark.
The paper has its starting point in empirical work conducted in Denmark based partly on interpretation of embodied everyday experiences amongst racialized minorities in Copenhagen, and partly from analysis of recent laws on urban politics in relation to vulnerable residential areas in Danish cities. It will be developed around three headings: - The ‘war on terror’ in everyday experiences of racialized minorities - Differential technologies of violence experienced in encounters with the police - Territorial stigmatization and the war against the ‘ghettoes’ These issues will be embedded in thinkings on (re)colonization of everyday life and territorial reorganization of social spaces in European urban areas. In this way, the distinct racist violence that flourishes in neo-imperial war is mirrored in the ‘new’ cultural and differential racism practiced in diversity management and ‘integration’ strategies in European urban politics. Neo-colonialism connects near and far, territorial forms of domination cut across scales and connect everyday experiences of racism with geopolitical conflict. The paper will draw on contributions from Henri Lefebvre, Franz Fanon, Hannah Arendt and many others.
Tatiana Fogelmann, Associate Professor, Department of People and Technology, Roskilde University, Denmark
In Denmark, as in many other places, the integration question has become largely an urban question. But more than that, the intense and enduring affective, legal, political, and material investments that mark the governmental focus on the “ghetto” and its eradication over the past two decades, increasingly territorialize the integration question in Denmark. This contribution thus enquires into the why of such territorialization, rather than what work this obsessive focus on the ghetto does (eg Simonsen 2016). I draw an inspiration from Martina Tazzioli’s (2019) analysis of the dispersal of undocumented migrants from camps in France and Italy as a political technology that, while tied to a longer colonial tactics of population management of unruly population, serves not only to disperse migrants across space but also to dismantle migrant spaces of life. In parallel, the Danish policy targeting marginalized social housing areas dismantles minoritized spaces of life. What is at stake in such spaces is not “just” the minoritized space or even visibility of that minoritization, but rather the concentration of minoritized (and classed) difference that is also materially rooted. I argue that it is the confluence of several factors – the Danish historic unease with the visibility of difference, the dogged persistence of early conceptualizations of migrants’ residential scattering as the hallmark of integration and the neoliberalized welfarism in Denmark - that has created the conditions of possibility for an obsessive governmental investment in uprooting of such spaces.
Kristine Samson, Associate Professor, Department of People and Technology, Roskilde University, Denmark
Architecture and design matters, both for citizens and as a spatial form of constructing identity and belonging in urban neighborhoods. Taking this as a point of departure, the presentation will provide a cultural and spatial analysis of the affective politics and aesthetics in recent architecture in Gellerup Aarhus. Analysing the aesthetics of “transparency”, “openness” and “faciality”, I suggest that current architecture distribute spatial politics through affective means with the intention to redistributing the sticky affects relating to modernist social housings and so designated “ghettos”. However, current spatial aesthetics of transparency and openness also raise the question for whom and for what new architecture is being built? With the presentation I want to discuss what aesthetic and symbolic “regeneration” does to the sense of belonging and to identity in urban neighborhoods. Can architecture make up for the stigmatization carried out by the ghetto list and ghetto law, or does it rather enact current affective politics? Drawing on affect theory (from Ahmed, Massumi, Reestorff)” the presentation suggests that current architecture and design distributes affective politics and aesthetics sustaining some citizens and lifeforms while diminishing others.
Nawal Shaharyar, PhD candidate, Institute of Political Science and Governance, Tallinn University, Estonia.
The paper forwards a way to see enactment of citizenship in particular spatialities -as citizens and manifold alterities in dialectic relations to each other. By drawing on the work of Engin Isin the paper examines forms of citizenship in relation to the production of manifold alterities. Furthermore, the paper maps this orientation towards citizenship and alterity in relation to urban space to study how different subject positions, orientations and strategies for being political emerge in conceptualizing and reconfiguring space. The paper exemplifies these nuances by means of a case study of the Lasnamäe –a residential neighborhood in Estonia. A space largely populated by the Russian language minority where historical legacy, ethnic identity, and discourses on urban space collectively shape the types of actions and interactions between legislation, urban governance and notions for social integration in Tallinn specifically and Estonia generally. The paper therefore reflects on the ways in which spatiality (socio-spatial reality and discourse) configures and re-configures implications for social cohesion and integration of ‘immigrants’ and minorities. Furthermore, it reflects on the implications of such configurations in understanding citizenship within the performative turn of enactment politics.
Iben Holck, PhD candidate, Cultural Encounters and Performance Design, Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
My research is an ethnographic exploration into spatial representations of future public housing areas as they are being designed by professionals such as architects, urban planners, consultants and employees from the municipalities and housing associations in current large-scale gentrification projects in public housing areas on the governments so-called “ghetto list”. Inspired by the idea of the Danish welfare state as an aesthetic laboratory (Kjældgaard 2019) in which politics and art evolve and shape each other, I apply an understanding of aesthetics as not neutral but processes of universalization of dominant subjects’ experiences (Tolia-Kelly 2016). I am particularly interested in how notions of aesthetics become entangled in the dominant role of ethnicity in the governmental “strategy against ghettoization”, the legal framework for the development projects, and in privatization as virtue in both the political legislation and dominant urban planning schemes. By attending to translations between citizen imaginations, material form and political discourses amongst professionals, I ask how we can understand the role of aesthetics in urban plans and architecture imagined and designed to create certain social integrations and diversities through attracting desired citizens and socialites while excluding and expelling others?
Garbi Schmidt, Professor of Cultural Encounters, Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark
Theoretically, this paper builds on historian Reinhart Koselleck’s pointing to the relevance of an approach to social history based on Begriffsgeschichte (Koselleck 2004). This approach allows us to investigate the historical persistence, change and novelty of concepts such as e.g. the concept of the ghetto and its meanings. In this paper I will, first, seek to offer a concept historical description of “the ghetto” in Denmark from 1692 and onwards. The year 1692 is important as it is the year where a Copenhagen police director suggested that Jews should settle in the neighborhood of Christianshavn. Second, I will seek to tease out how the ghetto historically has been both a counter concept and a counter space, used to spatially determine, frame, and exclude particular populations. The historical account and analysis is also important for understanding the relevance and employment of the ghetto concept in concurrent legislation and public debate in Denmark. A main argument of this paper is that this concurrent use of the concept builds on a longer history. This history is important for our understanding the field of political struggle that the concept of the ghetto creates.
Garbi Schmidt, firstname.lastname@example.org
The current challenges presented by the considerable migration from the Global South raise concerns in Western societies, including Danish, in the diverse domains. Questions of coexistence, social cohesion, and integration of the newcomers prevail in different public spaces, institutions, and labor markets. These complex realities, including immigration and the recent pandemic, increase social and economic inequality. In Denmark, the self-image of homogeneity counterweights the frail inclusion attempts from government and public institutions. In these contexts, research and interventions have often focused on explaining social ills, addressing deficiencies, and rarely affected the lived experiences of exclusion, systemic racism in public and personal spaces. Simultaneously, some researchers invoke inclusive spaces, among others, the ‘third space’ (Bhabha, 1994), a positive third space of hope (Dandekar, 2022) which engender new possibility, ameliorate exclusion, thus enabling people to move around and about complex issues. The liminal subject position ‘third space’, carved out by academics, enriched by experiences of migration, racialisation, and difference, negotiating personal, professional, and cultural belonging , is shown to drive knowledge-production and justice-orientated approaches. Consequently, there is a redefining of concepts and creating together, moving from non-belonging to multiple belongings, challenging the exclusionary processes, systems of privilege and power.
This workshop explores through the first-person voices, the lived experiences in diverse life domains, such as the higher education system, newly -arrived children in the Danish school system moving due to a range of parental reasons- forced migration to highly-skilled, privileged migration, so-called expatriates, dynamics of couples living apart together transnationally. The commonality of papers in this panel is the focus on another gaze on the lived experiences, on co-creation of the inclusionary ‘third space’. We invite you to join this partly- open panel with papers covering themes about migration, diversity in different life domains, diverse perspectives, visions and beyond.
Berta Vishnivetz, PhD, and Rashmi Singla, PhD
What does it mean to construct infrastructural materialities as a migrant community? How are relations shaped within the migrant communities (locally as well as transnationally), between majority and minority communities, and between migrant community and the state? What are the relations between the built materialities and experiences of belonging?
In this panel, we are interested in migrant communities that build infrastructure in their country of residence. Inspired by contemporary anthropological literature on infrastructure (Anand, Gupta and Appel 2018; Larkin 2013), we wish to investigate the specific materialities that connect, and perhaps also disconnect, migrant communities with their immediate as well as more distant surroundings How does the construction of a mosque, a temple, a school et cetera make a community visible, maintain and develop identity, as well as affect local and transregional networks?
Cecil Marie Schou Pallesen (Anthropology/Study of Religion, Aarhus University)
Bohras from Gujarat came to Zanzibar in the early 19th century and settled as traders and brokers in first Zanzibar and the coast and then East African inland. Today, they live in endogamous communities in towns and cities all over Tanzania. Many Bohras are successful businesspeople, but being a diasporic, Indian minority, Bohras need to balance their levels of affiliation and practice of loyalty cautiously. While the time before Independence was characterized by prosperity in the Indian communities, post-independence was rather a time of anxiety where Indian-owned buildings were nationalized, and thousands of Indians left the country. The transregional Bohra community today serves as a religiously informed social and economic security net that operates across national borders and thus provides the safety that the Tanzanian state misses. Simultaneously, the presidents of both Tanzania and Zanzibar has officially encouraged the Bohras to invest in building and infrastructure projects in Tanzania. Based on fieldwork in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar, this paper investigates the meanings and effects of the Bohras’ infrastructure projects – within the local and transnational Bohra community as well as in the relationship between Bohras and the Tanzanian nation.
14. RE:LATE. Families, intimacies, relationships "Emotions and affect in deportation: The transformative power of social relationships"
In the wake of the ‘refugee reception crisis’ of 2015 deportations of non-citizens, asylum-seekers in particular, have become a divisive public issue in Europe’s migration management and the broader media discourse. The proposed multidisciplinary workshop rethinks a central assumption of the deportation regime: that the deportees’ social presence in Europe would cease after removal and that deportability need not concern citizens and other legal residents. How does deportability (De Genova 2002; Dreby 2010; Drotbohm & Hasselberg 2015; Khosravi 2018; Nyers 2003) – a condition entailing the possibility of the subject’s deportation at any moment – or the actual removal of a person affect specific communities in Europe? The workshop would examine this central question with regard to diverse facets of social life, crucial among them family, community, and the national public sphere. The workshop would discuss affective and emotional dimension to the actions following from deportations and deportability by focusing on how emotions and their sharing at community level and in the public sphere mobilise people and shape identities and relations of individuals and communities. From another perspective, public officials seeking to carry out deportations cultivate social relationships with origin state officials in order to obtain their permission to deport. Here, too, affect and emotion come into play.
Through this approach, the workshop would put forth a broader argument that affect and emotion are central to understanding deportations in contemporary Nordic societies. While the desire to deport might be evoked via direction of a politicised collective fear, deportability yields not ontological security but other waves of fear in society at large. Deportations and deportability evoke emotions and affect not only in relation to individual deportees or on their behalf but also in relation to how the state is imagined, not least by its own public officials.
Katrine Syppli Kohl, Postdoctoral researcher, Centre for Advanced Migration Studies (AMIS) of the University of Copenhagen’s Saxo Institute
In Denmark, rejected asylum-seekers and others in the so-called departure position who do not comply with their return order are transferred to a designated ‘departure centre’. This paper examines Kærshovedgaard Departure Centre and its residents, the associated staff and volunteers, and advocates for and relatives of detainees. Proceeding from observations and informal interviews with residents during field visits in 2017–2018, analysis of documents, and follow-up semi structured interviews with key informants, the paper develops the argument that this facility should be understood as a technology of affective borderwork. The centre aims to induce return by making life intolerable, intentionally disrupting the family life of residents whose spouses and/or children live in Denmark. This separation from loved ones adds to the pains of confinement and deportation. While the Kærshovedgaard centre indeed succeeds in leaving its residents miserable, it largely fails to induce returns. By rendering family members invisible, it enforces a framing of its residents as single for purposes of public debate. This constitutes a border spectacle (De Genova 2013) that erodes the solidarity that might otherwise be expressed among the general public. Nevertheless, as the empirical material attests, both residents and some members of the public engage in acts of resistance aimed at enabling unwanted migrants to maintain a family life despite the restrictive living conditions created by Danish authorities.
Aina Backman, Doctoral student, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
The paper explores the work routines of preparing to complete deportations, along with the work-life situation of those employees tasked with deporting people. Via an ethnographic account focused on Swedish detention centres where preparations are made for immigrants’ forced removal by way of chartered journeys, it explicates the directing of affective labour (Hardt 1999) into deportation. In doing so, it takes a close look at the inter-employee work dynamics and discuss this through the metaphorical concept of ‘game’ (Burawoy 1979). The paper thus uncovers what is significant for realising deportations and how this plays out in interplay both among the staff involved and between staff and deportees. This approach yields profound insight into employees’ mechanisms of coping with the task of detaining people and producing deportability. The paper concludes that the making of deportations, in addition to being conditioned by legal frameworks (Majcher et al. 2020), is characterised by work-life challenges that tie in with more general tendencies that have global counterparts. This paper enriches the deportation literature through knowledge of the affective labour channelled into deportation, presenting an argument that this is a key dimension of the Swedish deportation regime.
Karina Horsti, Senior Lecturer, University of Jyväskylä & Päivi Pirkkalainen, Senior researcher, University of Jyväskylä
The paper examines the reactions and responses of Protestant congregations in Finland d to state authorities’ negative decisions on conversion-based asylum appeals. Finland tightened its criteria for international protection after 2015, the year of the ‘refugee reception crisis’, and this resulted in an increase in the percentage of asylum applications rejected and the number of deportation orders issued. Conversion from Islam to Christianity as grounds for asylum became a matter of heated public debate and was framed as a migration strategy. Analysis of documents, public appeals, Christian media materials, and interviews with key actors in the asylum and appeal processes of converts to Christianity shows the ways in which immigration authorities’ and courts’ suspicion that the faith may not be ‘real’ affects not only asylum-seekers but also Finnish Christian communities. It exerts this influence at a fundamental level whereby the individuals’ and the community’s trust in the state gets called into question along with the genuineness of their right to freedom of religion. Emotions of fear and frustration, even anger, are shared within the religious communities and more publicly in the ecumenical religious domain. Affective practices of performing and articulating emotions in the public arena become a means of resisting both deportations and the perceived violation of the right to define one’s faith. This type of resistance can, however, end up transformed into exclusionary practices exacerbating divisions between ‘us’ (Christians) and ‘them’ (Muslims).
Noora Kotilainen, Postdoctoral researcher, University of Jyväskylä
Making sudden violent events such as terror attacks visible as they unfold has thrived both in broadcast media’s live televised footage and in social media. Social-media-based live-stream technology is used especially often to mobilise publics (Van Es 2016). In the aftermath of the so called refugee crisis in Europe in 2015–2016, protesting in-progress deportation proceedings via on-the-spot live streaming of the events has emerged as a new form of mediated resistance to deportations (Khattab 2020). Hybrid media have enabled novel forms of mediatised deportation protests and helped form the ways in which people react to such protests. This vividly demonstrates how deportations not only affect the deportees but forcefully shape the society that deports. They elicit manifold affective reactions – from mobilisation of solidarity and the will to help to hateful and aggressive condemnation of the protests. By analysing the visual features of live streaming a deportation protest on a Finnair flight in 2018 and the emotional reactions and societal discussion that this mediatised protest generated in Finland, the paper shows how live streaming as a mode of communication creates affectiveness. The paper also argues that live streaming an unfolding deportation protest shapes how national audiences receive and react to the events. The protest examined generated reactions of benevolence, with emotions such as empathy and encouragement of the protest, and awoke a willingness to aid those under threat of deportation. Simultaneously, though, it concretised emotions of hatred and aversion, also provoking a sizeable hate-speech campaign targeting Aino Pennanen, the woman whose outspokenness delayed the flight.
Obtaining the collaboration of origin states is key to making deportations possible. Host states need the collaboration of origin (or, more rarely outside Dublin returns, transit) states, for example by identifying migrants as their citizens, and by issuing the travel documents that unlock deportation. Deportation thus straddles the domains of national and international policy, requiring both strong domestic state institutions that can enforce immigration law, and strong international relations to enable that enforcement. While this IR aspect of deportation is often examined at the level of states, as formal policy and readmission agreements, an underexamined objective of host states public officials is to cultivate personal relations with origin state officials in order to develop the goodwill and ‘working relations’ that unlock collaboration on return and readmission. In this paper we study the social dynamic in this relational process as it plays out in Norway and the Netherlands, two liberal democracies that have invested heavily in immigration law enforcement. How do emotions and affect come into play in these personal interactions between northern and southern public officials, which regulate the feasibility of deportation? How are relationships cultivated and instrumentalised for the purpose of 21st century sovereign territorial control? The paper, based primarily on focus group discussions with Norwegian and Dutch public officials, offers some tentative observations on these matters and draws out some theoretical implications for deportation studies.
15. RE:LATE. Families, intimacies, relationships: Understanding family violence in the context of migration and settlement
This panel will explore the ways in which migration and settlement processes shape the dynamics of violence, conflict and abuse within families, the impact of such violence and conflict, the constructions of it and responses to it. This could include an exploration of family violence and conflict in the context of policy framings and bordering regimes in relation to migration; the construction of and practice responses to parenting and family relations within migrant families; and the ways in which (im)mobilities and the (trans)national legal systems can (re)shape both the nature of violence and abuse and conflict within families, and possible responses to it.
For example, we welcome papers that explore manifestations of family violence such as domestic violence, forced marriage or so-called honour-based violence within particular communities, domestic violence and family conflict across transnational spaces such as transnational marriage abandonment or child abduction and policy responses to such issues. Our approach seeks to move beyond and critique the essentialist construction of migrant families and relationships as inherently violent and of migrant women as always/already victims in order to explore the specificities in experiences of violence and conflict in the context of migration. This entails exploring how the experience of migration may (re)shape existing dynamics within families such as age-related norms that govern family relationships and gender relations, how the intersection of gender, (changing) class positions, age and constructions of race may shape the trajectory and outcomes of family conflict and violence and how dominant constructions of immigrant communities and families may shape practice responses to such conflict and violence. We also seek to widen the lens to understand such violence and conflict beyond individual, family and community to state policies and practices and transnational legal frameworks.
By Anika Liversage. Senior researcher, VIVE, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Migrants arriving in Europe often originate from areas where survival depends on kinship, and authority flows along gendered and generational lines. In Denmark, they settle in an individualistic welfare state with low economic dependency on family. This contrast in gender regimes may induce massive changes in families. As norms regarding female conduct is central for how life in ethnic groups is reproduced or transformed, women's autonomy - including their ability to divorce – may become contested. This presentation outlines a monograph, which will expore the dynamics of divorce in ethnic minority populations. It will use divorce – and the domestic violence often associated with it - as a prism to investigate both changes in gender relations, and broader changes related to processes of inclusion in the host society. It builds on a decade+ of research on ethnic minority marriage and divorce, resulting in over 200 interviews with male and female divorcees, and with frontline workers. The material makes it possible to reconstruct individual trajectories into and out of marriage. Comparing such trajectories will show how intersecting positions in power structures at different scales - from the body to the nation state – contributes to shaping individuals' scope for agency and ultimately shape lives.
By Runa Baianstovu, senior lecturer, Örebro University and Sofia Strid, senior lecturer, Örebro University.
The paper contributes to research aimed at reducing honour related violence (HRV), that has become increasingly complicated/corrupt by neoliberalism and right-wing agendas. HRV has complex roots and consequences and is a contested field constructed through various borders, boundaries, and intersections such as nation, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, religion, and migration. The paper examines such boundaries and intersections by analysing the expressions, prevalence, and patterns of HRV in Sweden. In this social democratic and femocratic welfare state, challenged by increasing inequalities, mainstream discourses describe HRV as a distinctively dangerous form of violence linked to culture, religion, and migrants’ failure to ‘assimilate’ to Nordic ideals of gender equality. Such positionings on HRV continue to play into the hands of nationalist politics, racist agendas, and right-wing assimilationism.
In contrast, the paper draws on feminist and intersectional sociological theory, at the interface of honour, integration and migration, to develop the concepts of isolation and mobility. It draws on a substantial empirical material: focus-groups and individual interviews with people with direct, personal experiences and indirect, professional experiences of HRV (n=259) and three surveys on fifteen-year-olds in Swedish metropolitan areas (n=6002). The paper shows how isolation and mobility reinforce or weaken honour norms and violence, respectively.
Anika Liversage, email@example.com senior researcher, VIVE – the Danish Center for Social Science Research, Denmark, and Sundari Anitha, Professor of Gender, Violence and Work, University of Lincoln, United Kingdom.
Karen Valentin, DPU, Aarhus University Narges Ghandchi, DPU, Aarhus University
This panel addresses the issue of Re-location due to life and work uncertainty among a wide range of migrants with diverse education and work experience in Denmark. Across the political spectrum, there is a recognition of an acute and anticipated future need for labor, but the proposed solutions to this differ: through re-skilling of the Danish workforce, incorporation of already residing skilled and highly-educated foreign workers in Denmark or recruitment of foreign labor from outside Denmark. While high-skilled ‘knowledge workers’ are widely recognized as assets to the Danish economy, the need for low-skilled workers is more controversial and speaks into existing debates on integration. A common concern, though, are the bureaucratic and inflexible immigration laws that make it difficult for companies to secure the workforce needed and for workers to make long-term plans for their lives. This panel focuses on the large group of skilled and highly-educated migrants, who have entered Denmark on various immigration schemes, as well as refugees who have gained study or work experiences through integration programs. Many have already invested a lot in education, language acquisition, network and bureaucracy to gain a foothold in the labor market. Meanwhile, the Danish immigration system has intensified the temporariness of migrants— particularly from nonEuropean countries, compelling a potential group of workers to move on and seek opportunities elsewhere. Accordingly, Denmark becomes a dual transit country, both for the overlooked workforce and for the Danish state in constant need for labor. The panel takes a critical perspective on this dual character of re-location and transit (as discourse and practice) regarding migration in Denmark that has made the Danish labor market unattractive and difficult to access. We invite papers that across different categories of migrants reflect upon the relationship between labor market access, immigration bureaucracies and onwards migration (practiced or imagined)
Metter Ginnerskov-Dahlberg, Uppsala University
Karen Valentin, Aarhus University
This paper addresses the question of transit and relocation from the perspective of international students in Denmark. International students constitute an ambiguous category of foreigners in Denmark who in the media and political discourse are simultaneously represented as a highly qualified future workforce and as potential immigrants; and consequently as, respectively, assets versus threats to the Danish economy depending on where they originate from. For international students from both within and outside EU/EEA, politically ambiguous approaches to student migration combined with constant changes to legislation and corresponding bureaucratic procedures complicate long-term career planning and compel many to relocate after graduation. With a specific focus on post-graduation mobility, imagined and practiced, among a wide category of non-EU/EEA students from both the global North and the global South, this paper focuses on international graduates’ attempts to enter the Danish labour market and the ‘relocations’ this compel them to take, both geographically and career-wise. Moreover, through its focus on students from both the global North and the global South, the paper will shed light on differences and commonalities and thereby question taken-for-granted assumptions about trajectories of student migration.
Ashika Niraula, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Canada Excellence Research Chair (CERC) in Migration and Integration, Ryerson University, Canada
Highly educated migrants are often placed at the higher end of the migrant hierarchy in scholarly and policy debates. Consequently, it is often assumed that that the mobilities of the highly educated migrant are encouraged and facilitated by state and private actors. This paper argues that such an understanding overshadows the processes in which the highly educated migrants encounter, and resist, the restrictions caused by the harsh immigration policies. It claims that highly educated migrants’ collective activism to fight against stricter immigration policies can be understood as a critical site, where the category of ‘highly skilled’ migrants are reproduced, negotiated and contested. 3 It draws on interview data and participant observation data from three migrant movements in 2016 and 2017, which were sparked abruptly by the Danish government's tightening of immigration policies. The paper shows how that the constant changes in the Danish immigration policies, i.e., bureaucratic time, place the highly educated migrants in a precariat and uncertain futures and leave them stuck in time. It challenges the common understanding in the migration literature that only lowskilled migrants and refugees are the targets of strong state controls. It also critiques the prevailing understanding of migrant categories as being fixed and rigid.
Narges Ghandchi, Aarhus University
This study involves how reflections on relocation and uncertainty appear among Afghan origin migrants who arrived in Denmark in 2014 onward. Since the global rumors on the withdrawal of the NATO from Afghanistan, these migrants have undergone two major nationally bounded experiences with reference to Afghanistan and Denmark. The former evoking thoughts concerning war, fundamentalism, ethno-genocide, and socio-economic crises; the latter, the political shift in the reception discourse of refugees or migrants of certain origins from integration into Denmark as a new home to sending back home from Denmark as a ‘shelter’. This shift in rhetoric and practice placed many Afghan refugees in front of a constant dilemma: either living a life from scratch on a temporary basis and coping with unanticipated life conditions or relocation through going underground and moving on. The study takes the case of 20 Afghan refugees dealing with this dilemma in the last 5 years and discusses several scenarios of their and their families’ everyday lives, affected by the national and international policies, which aroused moment-to-moment decisions and reflections on mobility. Additionally, these scenarios revolve around their reflections about self-aspired or externally imposed decisions on taking job or education with respect to their career landscapes.
Katrine Sofie Bruun Bennetzen, Roskilde University
Michelle Pace, Roskilde University
This study explores the role of gender in migrants’ efforts at integrating into the labour market in Denmark. Numerous academic works argue that the experience of integration is qualitatively different for men and women. They conclude that gender plays a critical role in the pre-migration stage, in how men and women transition across state boundaries and, most significantly, in determining the way integration bureaucracies are experienced in host societies. Such scholarship demonstrates that the experience of integration is gendered and often to the detriment of women. But can the experience of women also be generalisable and reveal the foundational nature and logics of a host country’s integration regime? To answer this question, this study empirically focuses on the biographical accounts of female migrants in Denmark and their experiences of labour market integration (LMI). Since most holders of family reunification visas in Denmark are women, their experiences confirm the extant literature’s claim that migration is a gendered process. In addition, we argue that the nature of their experiences also reflects the foundational character of the Danish integration regime. The biographical accounts of our female narrators are analysed through the scope of turning points in their integration narratives and associated epiphanies.
Sara Lei Sparre, Department of Anthropology, Aarhus University
Stine Hauberg Nielsen, Department of Anthropology, Aarhus University
Migration and care are usually associated with unprivileged women from the South leaving their families to take up labour-intensive care work in Europe, USA, or the Middle East. Increasingly, however, migrants are also employed in the formal, public care sector in Northern Europe. Due to an acute lack of skilled social and health workers, Danish municipalities are actively recruiting migrants for vocational training and skilled work within elderly care. In this paper, we present preliminary findings from the project ‘From migrant to SOSU aspirant’ (2021-2023) on migrants and refugees from the Middle East and Eastern Europa, who struggle to enter the Danish labour market. While their migration backgrounds differ, many hold higher education. However, entering education and becoming trained social and health workers is far from a straightforward process. Migrants’ trajectories are complicated by inflexible immigration and educational legislation, conflicting requirements and expectations, and concerns for family members. The concept ‘hyper-precarity’ conceptualizes forms of ‘precarious inclusion’ shaping the fragile 5 relations between refugees, the welfare state and local communities. Drawing on this and discussions of mobility, education and employment, we explore how migrants deal with continuous uncertainty regarding residence permit and economic security in training to become social and health workers.
Helene Ilkjær – DPU, Aarhus University
As one of the most extensive construction projects in Europe to date, the Fehmarnbelt project requires a large number of highly specialized professionals to complete the work. A significant portion of this highly specialized workforce will be internationals who have experience from other large infrastructure projects around the world. Between 2019 and 2029, they will be involved in the construction of the 18-kilometer immersed road and rail tunnel linking the Danish island of Lolland with the German island of Fehmarn. On Lolland and the neighboring island of Falster, local stakeholders express high hopes that the Fehmernbelt project will be a driver for long-term economic development and population growth in the area. In a bid to attract and retain the international Fehmarnbelt staff, among other desirable newcomers, the municipality has established an international school and expanded its English homepages and welcome service. Based on interviews with HR professionals, local stakeholders, and highly specialized international professionals working for Fehmarnbelt partners, this paper discusses different notions of temporariness of work and stay. I trace the migratory routes of four international professionals to contextualize their current considerations about whether or not to move to Lolland, making Denmark a place of home rather than transit.
The labour market inclusion of foreign-born persons has puzzled policy makers and researchers for decades. Foreign born citizens and refugees experience lower employment rates, lower incomes and worse employment conditions than native-born citizens. In response, labour market inclusion policies in Nordic countries have shifted in both content and organisation where responsibility has moved back and forth between central and local level. Simultaneously novel bottom-up initiatives have been developed, involving a multiplicity of local actors and multi-level sources of funding. While organized in collaborative spaces, a good number of these bottom-up initiatives are led by the local government and include initiatives that range from public social procurement, job fairs and cooperatives to business incubators for social inclusion.
All in all, we are witnessing increasing efforts to implement labour inclusion programs through multi-level and more interactive and collaborative forms of governance where the roles of local governments are both expanding and changing. As local governments are turning into procurers, employers, and entrepreneurs, to mention just a few of the many roles taken in labour market inclusion policy, the capacity and engagement of other actors is crucial. What this entails in terms of perspectives on societal inclusion, policy making on all levels, and theoretical development, is understudied. We encourage submissions to discuss questions such as, but not limited to:
- How do novel bottom-up labour market inclusion initiatives in Nordic countries emerge, develop, and stabilize?
- What are the main similarities and differences between countries?
- What is the role and the characteristics of the local actors facilitating, supporting and anchoring these innovative interventions?
- What are the local policy pathways shaping the emergence and diffusion of these novel local initiatives?
- What are the normative and cognitive mechanisms, providing a multi-level administrative and budgetary framework for these local initiatives to grow?
- How do these new practices contribute to develop new/old roles of local governments in labour market inclusion?
- How and why the dissemination and scaling-up of initiatives succeed, i.e. how novel practices of labour market integration are communicated and become institutionalized, for example through network creation?
- What are the implications of these changing roles and the re:localisation of labour market inclusion on local governments, civil society and non-profit organizations, public and private organizations, and on the recipients of these policies themselves?
- What is the role of territory and place in prompting and stabilizing these initiatives?
Emma Ek Österberg, firstname.lastname@example.org, associate professor, School of Public Administration, University of Gothenburg
Nanna Gillberg, email@example.com, lecturer and deputy director, Gothenburg Research Institute (GRI), University of Gothenburg
Maria Norbäck, firstname.lastname@example.org, associate professor, director of Work and Employment Research Centre (we.gu.se), Dpt of Business Administration, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg
Patrik Zapata, email@example.com, professor, School of Public Administration, University of Gothenburg
María José Zapata Campos, firstname.lastname@example.org, associate professor, Dpt of Business Administration, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg
This panel explores the ways in which migration and remoteness co-constitute one other. Drawing on work that takes “remoteness” to be less a geographical fact than a social relation (Ardener 1987, Harms et al 2014, Saxer and Andersson 2019), we call for papers that examine ways in which remoteness is practiced, challenged, and shaped by migration – and vice versa.
Remoteness may be experienced and understood as precarious, for example in the context of protracted rural crisis and vulnerability, as demographic, political and economic changes reshape local lives. But it can also be experienced as a site of potential, where the social distance from centralizing states can open up more or less licit spaces of possibility and even utopia. One could even argue, that remoteness is established through co-existing experiences of both. In any case migration is a fundamental part of these various ways in which remoteness come into being as such. Remote areas – which can include a great variety of precarious and/or marginal spaces and not just rural settings (e.g. Ringel 2018) – have traditionally been conceived of as places that people primarily move away from, commonly to urban centers. However, they are not only spaces where national and international migrants move to for a variety of reasons, but their historical, social and economic linkages to other spaces are often fundamentally shaped by migration.
This panel welcomes papers on a wide variety of topics that relate to remoteness and migration, including
- The inclusion of newcomers in rural areas
- The experiences of migrants in remote spaces
- Refugee placement in the margins
- Relocation of jobs to rural sites
- International labor migration to rural spaces
- Infrastructural projects aimed at reshaping remoteness
- Political strategies for shaping migration in remote settings
n effective provision and access to health care services are central for the migration process and the integration of migrants. Studies has found different health aspects for these issues, and how certain situations can affect the health of migrants (e.g., (Abebe et al., 2017; Dalgard & Thapa, 2007; Diaz & Kumar, 2014; Valeria Markova et al., 2020; V. Markova et al., 2020; Straiton et al., 2016; Thapa et al., 2007; Yang, 2021). Despite that these works have adequately addressed migration health issues, especially among refugee groups, there are still challenges in understanding different perspectives of mental health problems, the burden of mental disorders and risk factors, and the underutilization of health care services among migrants. In order to facilitate better health care provision and welcome different perceptions of migration health, recent projects in Norway have been looking at these issues in order to fulfill certain needs among migrants and the health institutions. Therefore, this panel is looking at health care and mental health among migrants in a Norwegian context. This RE:PAIR panel will explore the gaps on migration health and bring special attention to different perspectives and challenges found in our studies. This panel will present and discuss the important needs in migration health, also enhanced by the pandemic. Moreover, juxtapose against inequalities in the communities and previously misunderstood connections between the migration process and health. By closely examining the different perspectives and some of the findings from these projects, RE:PAIR will shed new light on these little recognized issues in migration health. Through various presentations from recent studies in Norway, this panel will cover the different aspects of mental health and general heath among migrants.
The following shows a list of the panelists and discussant invited to our panel:
Melanie Lindsay Straiton. Researcher. Department of Mental health and Suicide. Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Panelists and abstracts
Samantha Harris PhD candidate. Department of Psychosocial Science. University of Bergen
Despite a seemingly higher need, refugees in Europe tend to underuse mental health services. To better understand this underuse, it is important to understand refugees’ willingness and ability to seek help from their general practitioner (GP) when experiencing mental health problems. We employed a combined vignette and survey design to explore how the GP fits into the larger context of help-seeking preferences among a sample of Syrian refugees in Norway (n = 92), and what barriers they perceive in accessing help from the GP. We also examined how indicators of integration relate to seeking help from the GP. Participants were presented a vignette of an individual with symptoms in line with ICD-10 and DSM-5 criteria for depression. Participants were somewhat likely to seek help from the GP; however, seeking help from one’s relationship with Allah/God and one’s partner was preferred. Furthermore, while the GP was rated a somewhat likely help-seeking source, most participants indicated an average of two barriers to seeking help from the GP. Finally, social ties to the majority population in the form of social integration and feelings of connectedness with the host country (psychological integration) were positively correlated with likelihood of seeking help from the GP. Taken together, these findings suggest that the GP is considered a viable source of help among Syrians with a refugee background, but that this may be impacted by perceived barriers and social as well as psychological integration. Addressing these barriers and promoting psychosocial integration with the host country are key to facilitating access and usage amongst refugees in need of mental health services.
Harris, S. M., Sandal, G. M., Bye, H. H., Palinkas, L. A., & Binder, P. E. Integration is correlated with mental health help-seeking from the general practitioner: Syrian refugees' preferences and perceived barriers. Frontiers in Public Health, 1952
Kamila Angelika Hynek. PhD candidate, Department of Mental Health and Suicide. Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Burden of mental disorder is not equally distributed in the society, with studies indicating women and migrants being particularly at increased risk of mental disorder development. Thus, being a woman and a migrant may result in a double burden with regard to mental disorder development. Yet, the knowledge regarding the differences in risk factors for and consequences of mental disorders between women with and without migrant background is limited. By using several national registers, this project aimed to map risk factors for and consequences of mental disorders among women with and without migrant background in Norway. Outpatient mental healthcare service use was utilized as a proxy for mental disorder. Our findings indicate that persistent low parental income is a risk factor for mental disorder, however only among majority youth, while it did not appear to be a risk factor for migrants. Further, consequences of mental disorder in terms of educational attainment and loss of income are similar for migrant and majority women. However, some groups such as majority and descendant women are more adversely affected in terms of both educational attainment and income loss, while women from Eastern Europe appear less affected.
Valeria Markova. Cand.Psychol. PhD. Center for Migration Health, Bergen municipality.
Adaption of the Problem Management Plus (PM+) to the local context. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed Problem Management Plus (PM+) as a low intensity scalable psychological intervention. The aim of the current study is to implement and explore the feasibility of this program at the Center for Migration Health (SEMI), an official organization working to secure refugee health in Bergen, Norway, and to register symptoms and functioning at baseline and followup 6 months and one year later. Before the program is implemented, cultural adaptations of the program to suit the target group receiving it (e.g., East African Refugees) will be carried out. This study will therefore include and adaption of the program details to the local context. How shall PM+ be adapted to East African refugees residing in Bergen. For the pre-program cultural adaptation of PM+, 8 health professionals working closely with this group and 8 resource persons with east-African background be invited to participate in two separate focus groups interviews. WHO encourages local adaptions to the manual. This means adapting the details of the program to the local context of the specific group of refugees who are to take part, before the program is implemented. The aim is to increase the chances of the program to succeed in the particular context of the group taking part. Adaption will take place in concrete steps in described by Perera et al. (2020): 1. Information gathering from the literature to identify local population characteristics; 2. Formulation of adaptation hypotheses with regard to how the manual might need to be adapted, based on information from the literature; 3. Focus group discussions with: (i) SEMI workers who know the culture of this group and their present situation and (ii) Refugees / professionals who are presently living well but have knowledge of the challenges refugees from this group may face in Bergen, either through own experiences as refugees or experiences in working with this group. This focus group will be asked to comment on the adaption hypotheses that have been developed in the above steps, and to suggest other adaptions that might also need to be made. The discussion will be audio-recorded and transcribed, and the transcripts analyzed using the NVivo software for qualitative analyses. The recording will be deleted after having been transcribed. 4. The final step is an external evaluation of the adapted manual with the help of professional health workers who are experienced working with this group of refugees. These professionals will give feedback on the suggested changes made in the manual.
Diversity matters: Effect of family size, gender role and national integration program on preference of acculturation strategies among the Syrian refugee women in Norway.
Shanaz Amin. PhD candidate. Directorate of integration and Diversity (IMDi) and Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen.
This research responds to the research question, how do the family practices, beliefs, traditions and National Integration Program affect acculturation orientations and acculturation outcomes of the refugees in Norway. Introduction program (IP) is the National Integration Policy Instrument (NIP) under the Introduction Act 2003 aiming to improve newly arrived migrant’s chances of participating in working life and society, eventually leading to financial independence. To do so, the project will apply a longitudinal research design with a mixed-method approach to answer the research questions. The study is divided into three different yet coherent subprojects. In Norway, refugee families are larger than families in the rest of the population, many of the refugee women are often caring for several younger children (Enes 2014; Enes & Wiggen 2016). Again, many of the refugee women are from cultures where women are not expected to participate in the labor market (SSB, 2016). Seeing the perpetual, dynamic changes in Norwegian demography resulted by migration, the research findings and conclusion will contribute in acquiring a scientific understanding of how the migrants are coping and adapting with their acculturation process in response of the mainstream society and national institutions.
Pierina Benavente Velando. PhD candidate. Pandemic Centre. University of Bergen.
Understanding the management and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on migrant workers: A qualitative study in Norway. The effects of the COVID-19 disease and the consequences of mitigation measures are amplified among socially vulnerable groups, and migrants are worldwide overrepresented in COVID-19 statistics. In Norway, by September 2021, 33% of infected individuals were born outside the country. The evidence suggests that this is due to complex relationships between economic, social, cultural, and behavioral individual and structural factors. In addition, migrants usually work in essential jobs and sometimes are employed precariously and are ineligible for sick leave, social security, or COVID-19 special payments, which make the migrant workers group even more vulnerable. This study aims to study, in migrant workers in Norway, the individual and structural factors underlying their management of the pandemic, the consequences of COVID-19 and countermeasures in all areas of life, and their understanding of the overrepresentation of migrants in the COVID-19 statistics and lower vaccination rates. We will invite early in 2022, 16 - 20 migrant workers from different worker groups (construction workers, transportation, cleaning workers, healthcare workers, and other skilled professional workers) in Bergen and Oslo to in-depth personal interviews. The participants will be sampled using snowball methods and thematic framework analysis will be used.
Dixie Brea Larios. PhD Candidate. Department of Psychosocial Science. University of Bergen (Chair)D
The current situation in Afghanistan makes it likely that we are facing a new wave of Afghan refugees, warranting more knowledge about how to deal with mental health problems among them. This study aims to gain more knowledge on Explanatory Models (EM) of depression and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) among Afghan refugees resettled in Norway. We conducted six gender-separated, semi-structured focus-group interviews based on vignettes with Afghan refugees (total N=27). The vignettes described a fictional character with symptoms of either depression or PTSD symptoms in line with DSM-5 and ICD10 criteria. The findings showed that EM varied with gender, age, generation, and migration stories. Participants suggested different potential causes, risk factors, and ways of managing symptoms of depression and PTSD depending on the context (e.g., in Norway vs. Afghanistan). In describing the causes of the depression/PTSD in the vignettes, females tended to emphasize domestic problems and gender issues while males focused more on acculturation challenges. The younger males discussed mostly traumatic experiences before and during flight as possible causes. The practice of condensing a single set of EMs within a group may not only be analytically challenging in a time-pressed clinical setting but also misleading. Rather, we advocate asking empathic questions and roughly mapping individual refugee patients’ perceptions on causes and treatment as a better starting point for building trusting relationships and inviting patients to share and put into practice their expertise about their own lives.
Brea Larios, D. Mjeldheim Sandal, G., Guribye, E., Markova, V., Lackland Sam, D. Explanatory models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among Afghan refugees in Norway.
20. RE:SEARCH & RE:POSITION Avoiding falling down the rabbit hole of ethnicity: de-migranticization, the post-migrant condition and what else?
Although heterogeneity permanently and substantially mark European societies, there is still a tendency in current political and academic debates to fall down the rabbit hole of ethnicity. That is, even if heterogeneity has become a commonplace normality in most people’s everyday life, debates tend surrealistically to end up in the same place, namely, in explaining a diverse array of societal issues through the lenses of ethnicity and/or integration. In the last years, there has been an influx of new concepts and perspectives in academia aiming to make sense of the current societal condition and challenging mainstream conceptualisations. Concepts such as “de-migranticization” and “the post-migrant condition” have gained significant influence. In contributing to this development, this panel asks empirical, methodological, and conceptual questions about new ways to research the contemporary condition/society. How can we better understand inclusion and exclusion in societies where the division into a majority and minority population is obsolete? How are solidarities and discords formed beyond mainstream ethnic and cultural categorisations? How can we develop methodological approaches for exploring everyday heterogeneity? What kind of conceptual tools are required to analyse the present condition?
This panel invites contributors to explore concepts, methods, and empirical perspectives that confront and challenge status quo research on ethnicity and integration, and that aim to find alternative ways to grapple with the contemporary condition.
Since the end of the Cold War, the politics of deterrence has grown into a dominant response to refugees arriving in the Global North (Gammeltoft Hansen & Tan 2017, 29). EU border and migration policy increasingly links ‘security’ to the deterrence and deportation of refugees introducing a range of measures, such as push-back actions, extraterritorial asylum processing, and return policies to prevent refugees from arriving in receiving countries. More indirect deterrence measures can also be observed, such as limitation on family reunification, cuts to social benefits, and the issuing of temporary forms of protection. In a Danish context the politics of deterrence reflects most clearly in the so-called “Paradigm shift” which is an ongoing process away from integration of newcomers and towards a focus on self-reliance and return policies. These developments put refugees under increased pressure and creates ‘hyper-precarious’ conditions of existence (Shapiro & Jørgensen 2020). In Critical Border and Migration Research these processes have been well theorized as the political production of ‘deportability’, which for refugees implies a constant fear of involuntary return (DeGenova 2013). There is however still an urgent need to critically discuss new approaches to the documentation and analysis of the consequences of the deterrence regime in practice. This panel aims to discuss innovative approaches to the study of the securitized deterrence regime in practice. Contributions can relate to one or more of the following questions:
- How is ‘deportability’ produced politically and socially, as well as legitimised in local practices, such as among social case workers and welfare professionals?
- How do the new measurements of deterrence have an impact on refugees as well as municipal frontline workers and civil society volunteers working with refugee relief?
- How can we explore the production of new subject positions during hyper-precarious circumstances? We invite papers that present new avenues in Critical Migration Research for studying and documenting the politics of deterrence in practice.
Katrine Syppli Kohl and Marie Sandberg (AMIS), Rikke Egaa Jørgensen and Ditte Krogh Shapiro; Lise Hauge; Nana Folke, Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, University of Copenhagen email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
22. Re-thinking Temporary Protection in the Context of the Return Turn in Asylum in Europe: ‘Concept, practice, principle’
Temporary protection is typically associated with situations of generalized violence or mass human rights violations, which result in large-scale displacement. In Europe, a temporary protection status was extended by states in the 1990s to people escaping civil war in the Balkans, on the assumption that return within a short period of time would be viable. By contrast, today many of these states have adopted asylum policies and practices that place time limits on protection for refugees even in the absence of sustainable return prospects. Refugees with temporary residence need to justify their continued need for protection without the guarantee of securing permanent residence. These policies and practices are embedded in broader policies of deterrence which also include strengthened measures for deportation, safe third country practices and extraterritorial processing (the ‘return turn’). Furthermore, temporary protection policies are often implemented using controversial interpretations of international refugee law.
Contributions to this panel will examine ‘temporary protection’ in the context of the return turn in asylum in Europe. Given the plethora of measures that introduce precarity to refugees’ residence and the political agenda dominated by return, the panel asks what constitutes ‘temporary protection’, how do they differ in their application across states and refugee groups, and how do refugees experience these measures. To this end, inspired by legal scholar Jean-Francois Durieux’s characterisation of temporary protection as ‘concept, practice, principle’, this panel will bring together multi-disciplinary analyses on temporary protection as a legal principle, a tool of migration governance, practices that destabilise residence, and refugee experiences of insecurity of residence. The topics the panel will address include: conceptualising temporal dimensions of protection as well as protection itself; comparative and historical research on the return turn and temporary protection; methodologies and ethics of researching temporary protection; and the legal consciousness of service providers and refugees.
Dr Esra Kaytaz, Centre for Trust, Peace, and Social Relations, Coventry University, Dr Jessica Schultz, University of Bergen, (on behalf of Temporary Protection as a Durable Solution? The return turn in asylum policies in Europe (TemPro)
The experience of migration has been a defining one for several of world’s religious traditions: The collective memory of the exile in Egypt and Babylon is at the core of the Jewish identity. Hijra – literally translated as “migration” – of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina marks such an important transition in the history of Islam that the Islamic calendar begins with it.
Religion emerged as a key topic of descriptions and debates of migrant populations in the early 21st century. Whereas religion is sometimes a driver of migration, it is more often associated with family and communal life as well as cultural and societal integration in the new host society. Migration has greatly contributed to diversification of religious life in many countries and led to novel transnational connections, including transnational marriage arrangements, travel of religious specialists and remittance flows for various purposes. Migrants themselves may also experience substantial changes in their religious lives that are often even greater across generations. While much religious life remains in the personal, family and community spheres, sometimes migrant religions become meaningful in educational and work organisations, political life and public opinion. For many religious communities and traditions, relocation also calls for theological reflection.
This session focuses on the diversity of outcomes, empirical findings and theoretical considerations at the intersection of religion, migration and integration. Recent changes in migration governance and migrant lived reality after both the European Refugee Crises of 2015 and the COVID-19 pandemic may provide fruitful platforms for reflections on the topic. We welcome contributions from disciplines including but not limited to the study of religions, theology, sociology, anthropology, history, and social psychology. Besides established religious traditions, the contributions may discuss non-organised religiosities and spiritual worldviews.
Like in the rest of the world, the Nordic countries has seen a rise of digital platforms that challenges their highly institutionalized labour markets. While providing app-based ordering for the national consumer, digital platforms mediate, organize and control labour relations through hyper-flexible employment contracts, minimal language requirements etc. While this leaves workers at the margins of the national labour market, it also provides migrant workers with an easy access especially to the highly institutionalized ones in the Nordic countries. Yet, the relation between transnational labour migration and digital platforms remains largely unexplored. Through platforms such as Happy Helper, Wolt, Gorillas, migrants carry out digital platform work in terms of food delivery and services (cleaning, care work etc.). Here, the few language requirements and the flexibility of the work creates a seemingly easy access to the national labour markets. However, the influx of migrant workers is vital for the operations of platform companies not only occurs physically but also virtually. Workers around the globe conducts crowdwork or microwork from home through different platforms such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk or Upwork. This produces new forms of labour mobility that hinges on the proliferation of borders in the digital space. Together, this hints at the fact that digital platforms emergence as infrastructures not only for new forms of labour but also for new practices of mobility both locally, nationally, and transnationally. This panel aims to understand the (im)mobilities, logics and dynamics inherent to the relation between transnational migration, labour, and digital platforms. We therefore invite papers focusing on the role of migration in platform labour both on the Nordic countries as well as other geographical locations. Themes could be but are not limited to:
- Migration and precarity on digital platforms
- Digital platforms and new forms of (im)mobility
- Migration and platform urbanism
- Migrant platform workers’ struggles for rights
- Digital platforms and national policies
Presenter(s): Konstantinos Floros, IT University of Copenhagen (Denmark)
The worldwide proliferation of digital labor platforms in the past decade has produced a growing literature on algorithmic management, precarious employment relations and the circumvention of collective agreements and labor legislation. What has been less explicitly articulated is that platform labor all over the world is mainly migrant labor, especially when it comes to platforms offering geographically tethered tasks such as ride hailing or housecleaning. The sociotechnical imaginary of the platform economy in Denmark has been promoted as offering opportunities to businesses and consumers, even though platform labor remains largely uncontrolled in terms of employment relations, tax issues, algorithmic transparency, and social dumping conditions. Despite the degrading working conditions, thousands of migrant workers – mainly female – sign up to Danish housecleaning platforms pursuing an easier entry point to the labor market. This paper engages ethnographically with platform housecleaners aspiring to analyze perceptions that are articulated from below, on both the nature of flexible/precarious working conditions and the role of Danish labor, welfare, and migration policies in producing the adequate environment of structured uncertainty for the proliferation of platform work.
Presenter(s): Magnus Andersen & Marlene Spanger, Aalborg University (Denmark)
The intersection between transnational migration and digital platforms remains unexplored in Denmark. Taking point of departure in the food delivery company Wolt, the paper analyses how the occurrence of the digital platforms change the dynamics of differential inclusion of migrant platform workers on the Danish labour market. Hence, from the perspective of migrants, the aim of the paper is to analyse how these transnational platform workers challenge the highly institutionalised categorisations of the so-called ‘Danish labour market model’. The paper draws on qualitative data of interviews with migrant platform workers, CEO of Wolt Denmark, ethnographic fieldwork and various documents produced by the trade union and Wolt. Through a case study of Wolt, this paper explores how digital platforms change the migration infrastructure to Denmark. We argue that the way in which these migrants are positioned at the margins of the labour market depend on how they move and are moved across transnational, national, and local spaces. As a result, the intertwinement of national migration policies and the algorithmic management in the urban space related to platform labour shows how particular (im)mobility practices is constitutive to the precarious lives of migrant workers.
Postdoc Magnus Andersen firstname.lastname@example.org and Associate Prof. Marlene Spanger, Aalborg University
Transnational migration has become a ubiquitous topic, in research as in everyday life and politics. This is unsurprising in as far as actual cross-border mobilities have – at least until the covid19 pandemic - increased steadily, if geographically unevenly. Especially in those regions most impacted by such mobilities migration had become over the past two + decades a key problem of governance and a problem that states see as a subject for management. Such conceptualization had initially enabled the growth of advanced degree programs in migration studies, which itself as a field of study has leapt its intellectual silos and is now drawing interest from (at least) scholars of security, EU law and policy, international and human rights law, international relations, sociology, anthropology, theology, the humanities. Yet transnational migration remains also one of the most contested and polarizing political issues. In such environments, critical and reflexive turns in migration studies have come under political attacks in recent years. So while teaching migration studies and training students in migration issues continues to be relevant and important, it is simultaneously deeply politically fraught and challenged.
In this roundtable, migration scholars and practitioners discuss the potentials and challenges of teaching migration studies in the current, politicized climate. RUC and Bergen are developing a new interdisciplinary, dual-university masters degree in Nordic migration studies (“NOMAD”) and questions arise: How to balance teaching critical and reflexive thinking about migration with the commitment of educating employable migration practitioners? What can interdisciplinarity in migration studies programs offer in regard to such a balancing act, and what are its limits or drawbacks? How can we ensure that such programs contribute to reshaping discourse surrounding migration rather than unwittingly reinforcing its problematic aspects? And how to communicate this complex navigation to students applying to such programs with expectations of gaining practical skills to work in migration and integration management fields? What kinds of scholarship and training are of greatest use for those who will go into the field and apply it?
Kerstin Carlson email@example.com
Over the past decade urban encounters with migrant and minoritized difference have become an important area of inquiry that brings urban and migration studies together. This book panel will discuss two recent books from leading figures in this field: Ruth Fincher, Kurt Iveson, Helga Leitner and Valerie Preston’s Everyday Equalities: Making Multicultures in Settler Colonial Cities, published in 2019 by the University of Minnesota Press, and Kirsten Simonsen and Lasse Koefoed's Geographies of Embodiment: Critical Phenomenology and the World of Strangers, published in 2020 by Sage. While both are written by geographers that have been straddling urban and migration fields and have the concept of encounter grounded in everyday urban life at their center, they examine – amongst other differences – cities from different geo-cultural and political contexts. We suggest these commonalities and differences offer a fertile ground for a productive encounter of an academic kind.
- Professor Garbi Schmidt, Roskilde University
- Professor Irene Molina, Uppsala University